This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 858092

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Improve Network School and Experiment at Mount Etna


Nicolosi (Mount Etna), Italy – July 24 – 28, 2023

From July 23 to August 3, 2023, Mount Etna will be the ground of a double event, represented by the IMPROVE Network School and Multiparametric Experiment. The school is addressed to the 15 IMPROVE early stage researchers plus other 15 PhD and post-PhD researchers from all over the world. The resulting 30 school students will be trained on multiparametric monitoring and modelling of volcano dynamics during theoretical lessons and mostly through tutorials and exercises. A final simulation will be run, during which groups of students will be asked to behave as a real volcano observatory in analyzing and interpreting time-space distributed multiparametric signals from a volcanic crisis, and in preparing bulletins for the Civil Protection authorities and statements for the media.

The IMPROVE experiment will see the IMPROVE researchers deploying temporary multiparametric instruments on the volòcano, which will complement the permanent monitoring network at Mount Etna, one of the most extended and sophisticated worldwide. The experiment aims at collecting innovative data on ground displacements occurring over a still poorly known frequency band, that numerical simulations instead suggest as carrying relevant information about the internal volcano dynamics. If successful, the IMPROVE experiment will shed new light on the magmatic processes within and below the volcano, leading to improved capabilities in anticipating the occurrence of a volcanic eruption.

IMPROVE Summer School in Carlingford, Ireland

On May 14-20, 2023, the third IMPROVE Network School was held in Carlingford, Ireland, under the leadership and organization of partner DIAS. The school was attended by 23 young researchers, including 14 IMPROVE ESRs and 9 other participants, coming from 10 different countries in Europe.

The school focused on geophysical data inversion and numerical modeling, by exploring both theoretical and practical aspects of these techniques. Examples from seismic and acoustic source estimations, volcano deformation, and volcano imagery using seismology and magneto-tellurics were used. The school also compared physics-based and data-driven inversion approaches, as well as new hybrid inversion methods incorporating deep learning and physical laws. Additional soft-skill elements of training included project management, research leadership, and effective communication.

A field trip to the Giant’s Causeway, on the coast of Northern Ireland, was organized to observe interlocking basalt columns. The field trip was led by Dr Michael J. Simms, Senior Curator of Geology at National Museums Northern Ireland, and Dr Mark Cooper, Chief Geologist at the Geological Survey of Northern Ireland (GSNI).

On the 17th of May an IMPROVE Open day was held in the Foy Centre in Carlingford, engaging primary and secondary school students as well as the local community. The day attracted a total of 213 primary school students, their teachers, and members of the public. The school students presented experiments and measurement in seismology, rock magnetics, buoyancy, wave propagation, using a variety of materials from natural rocks to different fluids. The teachers and staff commented on how organized and well run the Volcano Open day was. Overall, it was a highly successful and beneficial public outreach event.

Improve Network School on Mount Etna

Etna 2021


Nicolosi (Mount Etna), Italy – July 24 – 28, 2023

IMPROVE is a H2020 Marie Sklodowska-Curie Innovative Training Network for the next generation of European volcanologists. Early Stage Researchers in IMPROVE are trained while developing research on quantitative volcanology, from innovative monitoring and prospecting to advanced lab experiments, High Performance Computing, Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence. IMPROVE organizes schools, short courses, and other training and scientific meetings open to participants from outside the network.


The Etna school aims at introducing the students to the analysis of data from multiparametric volcano monitoring networks. The school is focussed on exercises and practice: frontal lessons are kept to a minimum, and they are addressed at providing the fundamental understanding necessary for a conscious use of processing tools and computational instruments which will constitute the core of the activities. The case studies will make large (but not exclusive) reference to Mount Etna, one of the most active, best monitored, most famous and most intensively investigated volcanoes in the world. The technical and scientific contents above are complemented by lessons on European standards for data management and policies, and on planning, engineering and testing new instruments for volcano monitoring.
All students are asked to bring a poster on their research activity, and present it in dedicated sessions.


July 23Arrivals (late afternoon) & ice-breaker
July 24Volcano deformation: theory and exercises
Late afternoon students’ posters & wine session.
July 25Volcano degassing: theory and exercises
Late afternoon students’ posters & wine session.
After-dinner presentation of the field excursion.
July 26Field excursion on Mount Etna.
July 27Volcano seismicity: theory and exercises
Afternoon training module on the EPOS data portal.
Late afternoon students’ posters & wine session.
July 28Final exercise: simulation of a volcanic crisis.
July 29Departures in the morning


Mount Etna (3357 m a.s.l.) is one of the most famous and active volcanoes in the world, and one of the most beautiful to visit and most rewarding to investigate. The eruption activity during last few decades is dominated by the formation of large lava fountains merging into sub-Plinian events with volcanic plumes reaching as high as 15 km above the crater. Quite often that summit activity is accompanied by the generation of lava flows, most of which invade the “Valle del Bove”, a huge depression on the Eastern flank of the volcano representing a major volcano-tectonic feature. Less frequent flank eruptions produce lava flows which menace, and sometimes partially destroy, villages as well as touristic installations.
The volcano monitoring system on Mount Etna is arguably the most developed in the world, with a number of permanent installations approaching 200  and  including  broad-band  seismometers, tiltmeters, dilatometers, gravimeters, GNSS, FTIR and  multi-gas  sensors, acoustic  sensors,  visible  and infra-red  cameras, integrated by satellite imagery (optical and radar) and field observations. The 24/7 volcanic control room at the INGV Etna Observatory in Catania continuously receives Tb of data which are processed in real-time, and is constantly in contact with the regional and national operational rooms of the Italian Civil Protection system.

Comitato organizzativo: Eugenio Privitera, Giuseppe Puglisi, Paolo Papale, Raffaela Pignolo.
Supporto tecnico: Massimiliano Cascone, Patrizia Pantani, Salvatore Consoli, Fabrizio Pistagna.


Each student will pay a contribution to the true costs, amounting to a total of 430 euros to be payed on-site, inclusive of accommodation in double or triple room, breakfast, lunch, coffee breaks, social dinner, school materials, transfer from-to Catania airport at scheduled times, and additional transfers during the school days. The cable car to access the summit area of Mount Etna during the day of field trip costs additional 45 euros, to be payed on-site to the service-providing company.


INGV building, Via Monti Rossi 1

The first IMPROVE Specialized Short Course

Sh Cours Grenoble

On 21-23 January 2023 at ISTerre, Grenoble (France) took place the first IMPROVE Specialized Short Course. The course was organized an managed by organized by Stéphane Garambois and Jean Vandemeulebrouck. It focused on the new techniques developed in seismology (ambient noise, DAS, covariance techniques), on seismic tomography, on the acquisition and processing of geophysical data from the European data centers and on complementary imaging methods, magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic, applicable to volcanoes and geothermal areas. 9 of the 15 ESRs from IMPROVE project attended this course together with further 8 PhD students from the doctoral school STEP (Sciences de la Terre, de l’Environnement et des Planètes) of University Grenoble Alpes

IMPROVE SSC on Volcano Geodesy

Numerical modelling in volcano geodesy

SSC#2: Short course on Volcano Geodesy

27th – 29th March 2023 | University of Bristol

Applications should be sent to Joachim Gottsmann:

Deadline 10 March

IMPROVE Summer School Ireland

Ireland School

Geophysical data inversion and numerical forward modelling

Carlingford, Ireland – 14th-20th May 2023

Deadline for Registration: 3rd April 2023

IMPROVE is a H 2020 Marie-Sklodowska Curie Innovative Training Network for the next generation of European volcanologists. Early Stage Researchers in IMPROVE are trained while developing research on quantitative volcanology, from innovative monitoring and prospecting to advanced lab experiments, High Performance Computing, Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence. IMPROVE organizes schools, short courses, and other training and scientific meetings open to participants from outside the network.


Geophysical data inversion and numerical forward modelling are key elements in the study of volcanoes. Physics based inversion allows the estimation of a population of models by extracting information from observed data, while forward modelling tools can yield a prediction of the expected data, given a model. Combined use of these approaches permit estimates of volcano source parameters and volcano structure. In the Ireland School we will consider theoretical and practical aspects of both data inversion and forward modelling, drawing on examples from seismic & acoustic (infrasound) source estimations, volcano deformation and volcano imagery using seismology and magnetotellurics. We will also briefly consider the relative merits of physics based versus data driven inversion (e.g. Deep Learning – DL), and briefly explore new hybrid inversion approaches where physical laws are incorporated into DL data driven schemes. Finally the School will also cover topics such as project management, research leadership, and good communication.


May 14:Arrivals (late afternoon) & ice-breaker
May 15:- Inverse theory: turning data into models;
- *Mini workshop on preparing material for Open Day
May 16:- Inverse Theory practicals;
- Forward modelling: predicting data from a model;
- Sea Kayaking (weather permitting).
May 17:- Forward modelling practicals;
- Public Open Day;
- **Poster session, BBQ.
May 18:- Field trip to Giant’s Causeway columnar basalts; Co. Antrim
May 19:Open format on:
- Project management;
- Research leadership;
- Good communication;
Industry perspectives.
May 20:Departures in the morning

*Particpants will be expected to collaborate (online) to prepare material in advance of the school.
** Participants are expected to bring a poster outlining their research work.

There will also be a special presentation on the Hunga Tonga–Hunga Haʻapai eruption, as part of the School.
Preliminary list of lecturers: Silvio De Angelis, Duygu Kiyan, Ivan Lokmer, Chris Bean, Paddy Smith, Ka Lok Li, Emma Chambers [… additional lecturers & updates coming shortly]


PhD candidates and early stage post docs with little to no prior knowledge of inversion and forward modelling.


Each student will pay a contribution towards the true costs. This includes accommodation in double or triple rooms, breakfast, lunch, coffee breaks and dinners. The cost of school materials, transfers to and from Dublin airport at scheduled times, field trip and kayaking, will be covered by the IMPROVE Project. The estimated maximum cost is €470 (accounting for possible inflation).


The school is open to a maximum of 15 students, besides IMPROVE fellows. Participants will be selected on the basis of demonstrated relevance of the school for their research and career development.
Deadline for Registration: 3rd April 2023
Information on Acceptance: 10th April 2023

Although Ireland is an EU member state, it is not part of the Schengen travel area. Therefore, it is the responsibility of non-EU citizens to determine if they require a visa to travel to Ireland. Applicants who have been offered a place on the School will be offered a letter of acceptance, if they need one for visa purposes.

Location photo

The School will be held in the small coastal village of Carlingford, about half way between Dublin and Belfast.
There is easy access to Dublin airport. The village is vibrant but isolated, ideal for a week of both science and fun.

First IMPROVE Specialized Short Course in “Seismology and Imaging”


SSC#1: Short course in Seismology & Imaging

23th – 25th January 2023
ISTerre, University Grenoble Alpes, France

Newsletter n. 2

Newsletter n. 2


  • 15 early stage researchers on board;
  • IMPROVE School in Iceland;
    • IMPROVE multiparametric experiment at Krafla, Iceland;
  • IMPROVE on the Neapolitan volcanoes.

Flipbook | pdf

Krafla multiparametric experiment

The IMPROVE multi-parametric experiment at Krafla took place from June 17 to July 3 (with some groups continuing further). A total of 41 personnel took place, including 14 Early Stage Researchers recruited under IMPROVE. The experiment has a strong scientific content, as it is described in the project:

OBJECTIVE #1. IMPROVE will attack the present-day major limitation in underground imaging of volcanoes, by concentrating the research of 9 ESRs and their scientific tutorship teams in a coordinated, multi-disciplinary effort aimed at testing current-day models, and developing new ones, at Krafla, the unique place where ground- truth testing can be conducted thanks to direct knowledge of the magma-rock interface.

It also has a similarly strong educational content, justifying the participation of all of the IMPROVE ESRs (one still to be recruited at the time), including those focusing their research activities on Mount Etna.

ESRProjectInst.Objectives (shortened)Active field component
3Thermo-mechanical modelling of the shallow magmatic body at KraflaINGVConstrain dynamics and thermo-mechanical properties of subsurface at KraflaNone
5Thermal response of a geothermal system to intrusion and rifting episodesUIQuantify thermal and fluid flow effects of intrusions and rifting; study energy budgetExploration of thermal output of fumaroles
6Crustal deformation modeling in the Krafla area based on realistic Earth propertiesUIConstruct 3D visco-poro-elastic model; use to study geothermal and other deformationGNSS measurements (~70 campaign stations); levelling
7Time lapse virtual & earthquake source seismic imagery at KraflaDIASApply and developed innovative seismic reflection for chamber roof; new borehole seismometers100 nodes; 20 seismometers; borehole seismometer
9Evolution of permeability in Krafla's geothermal field and associated seismo-acoustic patternsLMUDetermine permeability and volatile flux evolution using lab work & simulations; link to seismicitySample collection; drill cuttings; field permeability measurements
11Shallow crustal density distributions and its evolution at the Krafla volcanic systemUNIV-BRISConstruct 3D subsurface density model from gravity & other data; temporal gravity changesGravity survey (incl. GNSS)
12Multi-scale high resolution geophysical imaging of Krafla sub-volcanic systemIS-TerreVH-res electric, IP, MT, seismic, magnetic surveys; link with seismicity, flow, & joint integration60 electric, 100 seismic nodes; 6 magnetotelluric systems
13Modeling mass balance and stress transfer at the Krafla volcanic systemGFZInstall 5 continuous gravity+ stations; compare with production data & model mass movementsMove Theistareykir gravity infrastructure to Krafla; gravity survey
15Geochemical prospecting and geothermal circulation modelling at KraflaINGVGeochemical prospecting and geothermal circulation modelling; test new instrumentsCO2 flux and T mapping; sampling for CO2 isotopes; CO2 flux monitoring station